## Thursday, 16 November 2017

### Subnetting

Subnetting is the process of creating new networks (or subnets) by stealing
bits from the host portion of a subnet mask. There is one caveat: stealing bits
from hosts creates more networks but fewer hosts per network.
Consider the following Class C network:
192.168.254.0

The default subnet mask for this network is 255.255.255.0. This single network can be segmented, or subnetted, into multiple networks. For example, assume a minimum of 10 new networks are required. Resolving this is possible using the following magical formula:
2^n
The exponent ‘n’ identifies the number of bits to steal from the host portion
of the subnet mask. The default Class C mask (255.255.255.0) looks as
follows in binary:

11111111.1111111.1111111.00000000

There are a total of 24 bits set to 1, which are used to identify the network.
There are a total of 8 bits set to 0, which are used to identify the host, and
these host bits can be stolen.

Stealing bits essentially involves changing host bits (set to 0 or off) in the
subnet mask to network bits (set to 1 or on). Remember, network bits in a
subnet mask must always be contiguous - skipping bits is not allowed.
Consider the result if three bits are stolen. Using the above formula:

2^n
= 23
= 8 = 8 new networks created

However, a total of 8 new networks does not meet the original requirement
of at least 10 networks. Consider the result if four bits are stolen:
2n
= 24
= 16 = 16 new networks created

A total of 16 new networks does meet the original requirement. Stealing four
host bits results in the following new subnet mask:
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 = 255.255.255.240
the previous example, a Class C network was subnetted to create 16 new
networks, using a subnet mask of 255.255.255.240 (or /28 in CIDR). Four
bits were stolen in the subnet mask, leaving only four bits for hosts.
To determine the number of hosts this results in, for each of the new 16
networks, a slightly modified formula is required:

2n – 2
Consider the result if four bits are available for hosts:
2n – 2 = 24 – 2 = 16 – 2 = 14 usable hosts per network
Thus, subnetting a Class C network with a /28 mask creates 16 new
networks, with 14 usable hosts per network.
Why is the formula for calculating usable hosts 2n – 2? Because it is never
possible to assign a host an address with all 0 or all 1 bits in the host portion
of the address. These are reserved for the subnet and broadcast addresses,
respectively. Thus, every time a network is subnetted, useable host addresses
are lost.

The 2n-2 Rule and Subnetted Networks

To avoid confusion, it was historically unacceptable to use the first and last
new networks created when subnetting, as it is possible for a classful
network to have the same subnet and broadcast address as its subnetted
networks. This required the 2n – 2 formula to also be used when calculating
the number of new networks created while subnetting.
However, this is no longer a restriction for modern equipment and routing
protocols. Specifically, on Cisco IOS devices, the following command is
now enabled by default:
Router(config)# ip subnet-zero
The ip subnet-zero commands allows for the use of networks with all 0 or all
1 bits in the stolen network portion of the address. Thus, the formula for
calculating the number of new networks created is simply 2n.
Remember though, the formula for calculating usable hosts is always 2n – 2.

Determining the Range of Subnetted Networks:--

Determining the range of the newly created networks can be accomplished
using several methods. The long method involves some binary magic.
Consider the example 192.168.254.0 network again, which was subnetted
using a 255.255.255.240 mask:

192.168.254.0: 11000000.10101000.11111110.00000000
255.255.255.240: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
Subnetting stole four bits in the fourth octet, creating a total of 16 new
networks. Looking at only the fourth octet, the first newly created network is
0000. The second new network is 0001. Calculating all possible
permutations of the four stolen bits:

Note that this equates to exactly 16 new networks. The decimal value
represents the first (or the subnet) address of each newly created network. To
determine the range for the hosts of the first new network:

The binary value has been split to emphasize the separation of the stolen
network bits from the host bits. The first address has all 0 bits in the host
portion (0000), and is the subnet address for this network. The last address
has all 1 bits in the host portion, and thus is the broadcast address for this
network. Note that there are exactly 14 usable addresses to assign to hosts.
Calculating the ranges of subnetted networks can quickly become tedious
when using the long binary method. The shortcut method involves taking the
subnet mask (255.255.255.240 from the previous example), and subtracting
the subnetted octet (240) from 256.
256 – 240 = 16
Assuming ip subnet-zero is enabled, the first network will begin at 0. Then,
simply continue adding 16 to identify the first address of each new network:

Knowing the first address of each new network makes it simple to determine
the last address of each network:

Only the first 10 networks were calculated, for brevity. The first address of
each network becomes the subnet address for that network. The last address
of each network becomes the broadcast address for that network.
Once the first and last address of each network is known, determining the

usable range for hosts is straightforward:

Hosts on the same network (such as 192.168.254.2 and 192.168.254.14) can communicate freely.
Hosts on different networks (such as 192.168.254.61 and 192.168.254.66)
require a router to communicate.
Class A Subnetting Example
Consider the following subnetted Class A network: 10.0.0.0 255.255.248.0
Now consider the following questions:
• How many new networks were created?
• How many usable hosts are there per network?
• What is the full range of the first three networks?
By default, the 10.0.0.0 network has a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0. To
determine the number of bits stolen:
255.0.0.0: 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
255.255.248.0: 11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000
Clearly, 13 bits have been stolen to create the new subnet mask. To calculate
the total number of new networks:
2n
= 213
= 8192 new networks created
There are clearly 11 bits remaining in the host portion of the mask:
2n – 2 = 211 – 2 = 2048 – 2 = 2046 usable hosts per network
Calculating the ranges is a bit tricky. Using the shortcut method, subtract the
third octet (248) of the subnet mask (255.255.248.0) from 256.
256 – 248 = 8
The first network will begin at 0, again. However, the ranges are spread
across multiple octets. The ranges of the first three networks look as follows:

### IP Address Classes

IP Address Classes:-

The IPv4 address space has been structured into several classes. The value of the first octet of an address determines the class of the network:

Class A networks range from 1 to 127. The default subnet mask is 255.0.0.0. Thus, by default, the first octet defines the network, and the last three octets define the host. This results in a maximum of 127 Class A networks, with 16,777,214 hosts per network!
Example of a Class A address:
Address: 64.32.254.100
Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0
Class B networks range from 128 to 191. The default subnet mask is
255.255.0.0. Thus, by default, the first two octets define the network, and the last two octets define the host. This results in a maximum of 16,384 Class B networks, with 65,534 hosts per network.
Example of a Class B address:
Address: 152.41.12.195
Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0

Class C networks range from 192 to 223. The default subnet mask is
255.255.255.0. Thus, by default, the first three octets define the network, and the last octet defines the host. This results in a maximum of 2,097,152 Class C networks, with 254 hosts per network.
Example of a Class C address:

Address: 207.79.233.6
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

Class D networks are reserved for multicast traffic. Class D addresses do not use a subnet mask and not in use in general life  also.

CIDR  :-- Classless Inter-Domain Routing

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a simplified method of
representing a subnet mask. CIDR identifies the number of binary bits set to a 1 (or on) in a subnet mask, preceded by a slash.
For example, a subnet mask of 255.255.255.240 would be represented as follows in binary:

11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
The first 28 bits of the above subnet mask are set to 1. The CIDR notation for this subnet mask would thus be /28.
The CIDR mask is often appended to the IP address. For example, an IP
address of 192.168.1.1 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 would be
represented as follows using CIDR notation:

192.168.1.1/24

Address Classes vs. Subnet Mask:-----

Remember the following three rules:

• The first octet on an address dictates the class of that address.
• The subnet mask determines what part of an address identifies the
network, and what part identifies the host.
• Each class has a default subnet mask. A network using its default
subnet mask is referred to as a classful network.
For example, 10.1.1.1 is a Class A address, and its default subnet mask is 255.0.0.0 (/8 in CIDR).
It is entirely possible to use subnet masks other than the default. For
example, a Class B subnet mask can be applied to a Class A address:

10.1.1.1 /16

However, this does not change the class of the above address. It remains a Class A address, which has been subnetted using a Class B mask. Remember, the only thing that determines the class of an IP address is the first octet of that address. Likewise, the subnet mask is the only thing that determines what part of an address identifies the network, and what part identifies the host.

Subnet and Broadcast Addresses
On each IP network, two host addresses are reserved for special use:
• The subnet (or network) address
• The broadcast address
Neither of these addresses can be assigned to an actual host.
The subnet address is used to identify the network itself. A routing table contains a list of known networks, and each network is identified by its subnet address. Subnet addresses contain all 0 bits in the host portion of the address.
For example, 192.168.1.0/24 is a subnet address. This can be determined by looking at the address and subnet mask in binary:

IP Address: 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000000
Subnet Mask: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

Note that all host bits in the address are set to 0.
The broadcast address identifies all hosts on a particular network. A packet sent to the broadcast address will be received and processed by every host on that network. Broadcast addresses contain all 1 bits in the host portion of the address.
For example, 192.168.1.255/24 is a broadcast address. Note that all host bits are set to 1:
IP Address: 11000000.10101000.00000001.11111111
Subnet Mask: 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

Broadcasts are one of three types of IP packets:

Unicasts are packets sent from one host to one other host

Multicasts are packets sent from one host to a group of hosts

Broadcasts are packets sent from one host to all other hosts on the
local network A router, by default, will never forward a multicast or broadcast packet from one interface to another.
A switch, by default, will forward a multicast or broadcast packet out every port, except for the port that originated the multicast or broadcast.

## Tuesday, 14 November 2017

### Network Devices and there working

The following icons will be used to represent network devices for all guides

on this website

Layer-1 Hubs

Hubs are Layer-1 devices that physically connect network devices together  for communication. Hubs can also be referred to as repeaters.

Hubs provide no intelligent forwarding whatsoever. Hubs are incapable of processing either Layer-2 or Layer-3 information, and thus cannot make decisions based on hardware or logical addressing.

Thus, hubs will always forward every frame out every port, excluding the port originating the frame. Hubs do not differentiate between frame types, and thus will always forward unicasts, multicasts, and broadcasts out every

Layer-2 devices build hardware address tables, which will contain the following at a minimum:
• Hardware addresses for host devices
• The port each hardware address is associated with
Using this information, Layer-2 devices will make intelligent forwarding decisions based on frame (Data-Link) headers. A frame can then be forwarded out only the appropriate destination port, instead of all ports.
Layer-2 forwarding was originally referred to as bridging. Bridging is a largely deprecated term (mostly for marketing purposes), and Layer-2 forwarding is now commonly referred to as switching.

Layered Communication:--

Network communication models are generally organized into layers. The OSI model specifically consists of seven layers, with each layer representing a specific etworking function. These functions are controlled by protocols, which govern end-to-end communication between devices.

As data is passed from the user application down the virtual layers of the OSI model, each of the lower layers adds a header (and sometimes a trailer) containing protocol information specific to that layer. These headers are called Protocol Data Units  (PDUs), and the process of adding these headers is referred to as encapsulation.

For example, switches are generally identified as Layer-2 devices, as switches process information stored in the Data-Link header of a frame (such as MAC addresses in Ethernet). Similarly, routers are identified as Layer-3 devices, as routers process logical addressing information in the Network header of a packet (such as IP addresses).

However, the strict definitions of the terms switch and router have blurred over time, which can result in confusion. For example, the term switch can now refer to devices that operate at layers higher than Layer-2.